Society of Sisters, U. The case comes to us with no definitive description of the classifying facts or delineation of the disfavored class. First, in support of their charge that the system discriminates against the "poor," appellees have made no effort to demonstrate that it operates to the peculiar disadvantage of any class fairly definable as indigent, or as composed of persons whose incomes are beneath any Page U. Reporting procedures may vary depending on the county or region where you live. Those cases do not touch on the question whether equal protection is denied to persons with relatively less money on whom designated fines impose heavier burdens. In concluding that strict judicial scrutiny was required, Page U. The payment requirements in each case were found to occasion de facto discrimination against those who, because of their indigency, were totally unable to pay for transcripts. In these days, it is doubtful that any child may reasonably be expected to succeed in life if he is denied the opportunity of an education. The steps below are meant to be a guide through the reporting process for both victims and those who suspect that a friend or loved one might be a victim.
Apart from the unsettled and disputed question whether the quality of education may be determined by the amount of money Page U. Reporting procedures may vary depending on the county or region where you live. The District Court held that the Texas system discriminates on the basis of wealth in the manner in which education is provided for its people. Only appellees' first possible basis for describing the class disadvantaged by the Texas school financing system -- discrimination against a class of definably "poor" persons -- might arguably meet the criteria established in these prior cases. Thus, the key to discovering whether education is "fundamental" is not to be found in comparisons of the relative societal significance of education, as opposed to subsistence or housing. As in the case of housing, the central importance of welfare benefits to the poor was not an adequate foundation for requiring the State to justify its law by showing some compelling state interest. However described, it is clear that appellees' suit asks this Court to extend its most exacting scrutiny to review a system that allegedly discriminates against a large, diverse, and amorphous class, unified only by the common factor of residence in districts that happen to have less taxable wealth than other districts. If the adult in question does not meet the handicapped qualification and is suspected to be the victim of abuse or neglect, please click here to read more about domestic violence and the law. The argument here is not that the children in districts having relatively low assessable property values are receiving no public education; rather, it is that they are receiving a poorer quality education than that available to children in districts having more assessable wealth. Rather, the answer lies in assessing whether there is a right to education explicitly or implicitly guaranteed by the Constitution. To learn more about how the Ohio Department of Health defines abuse, neglect and misappropriation, click here. We thus conclude that the Texas system does not operate to the peculiar disadvantage of any suspect class. Assuming a perfect correlation between district property wealth and expenditures from top to bottom, the disadvantaged class might be Page U. See also Jefferson v. Absent constitutional mandate, the assurance of adequate housing and the definition of landlord-tenant relationships are legislative, not judicial, functions. If, in fact, these correlations could be sustained, then it might be argued that expenditures on education -- equated by appellees to the quality of education -- are dependent on personal wealth. The payment requirements in each case were found to occasion de facto discrimination against those who, because of their indigency, were totally unable to pay for transcripts. In these days, it is doubtful that any child may reasonably be expected to succeed in life if he is denied the opportunity of an education. Rather than focusing on the unique features of the alleged discrimination, the courts in these cases have virtually assumed their findings of a suspect classification through a simplistic process of analysis: Second, neither appellees nor the District Court addressed the fact that, unlike each of the foregoing cases, lack of personal resources has not occasioned an absolute deprivation of the desired benefit. On this issue the court concluded that "[n]ot only are defendants unable to demonstrate compelling state interests. The precedents of this Court provide the proper starting point. We are in complete agreement with the conclusion of the three-judge panel below that "the grave significance of education both to the individual and to our society" cannot be doubted. In his view, if the degree of judicial scrutiny of state legislation fluctuated, depending on a majority's view of the importance of the interest affected, we would have gone "far toward making this Court a super-legislature. The steps below are meant to be a guide through the reporting process for both victims and those who suspect that a friend or loved one might be a victim.
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