Some of the clays have pronounced shrink-swell properties and are difficult to work under most moisture conditions. After Vice President Mirabeau B. The men and women who traveled mainly from Houston to conduct government business were intensely disappointed as well. Travis County was established in , and the surrounding counties were mostly established within the next two decades. By , the population had risen to , of whom nearly half fled from Austin when Congress recessed. After most housing deeds prohibited African Americans and sometimes other nonwhite groups from using land. The lakes also provide venues for boating, swimming, and other forms of recreation within several parks on the lake shores. Texas thus became an independent country with its own president, congress, and monetary system.
The men and women who traveled mainly from Houston to conduct government business were intensely disappointed as well. The voting by the fourth President of the Republic, Anson Jones , and Congress, who reconvened in Austin in , settled the issue to keep Austin the seat of government, as well as annex the Republic of Texas into the United States. The University of Texas at Austin emerged as a major university. Census Bureau reported Austin's population as In , the Texas Congress formed a commission to seek a site for a new capital to be named for Stephen F. In , the U. Upon threats of Mexican troops in Texas, Houston raided the Land Office to transfer all official documents to Houston for safe keeping in what was later known as the Archive War , but the people of Austin would not allow this unaccompanied decision to be executed. Lamar visited the area during a buffalo -hunting expedition between and , he proposed that the republic's capital, then in Houston , be relocated to the area situated on the north bank of the Colorado River near the present-day Congress Avenue Bridge. The area's earliest known inhabitants lived during the late Pleistocene Ice Age and are linked to the Clovis culture around BC 11, years ago , based on evidence found throughout the area and documented at the much-studied Gault Site , midway between Georgetown and Fort Hood. The Comanches and Lipan Apaches were also known to travel through the area. In , the city occupied a total area of Many of Austin's soils, especially the clay-rich types, are slightly to moderately alkaline and have free calcium carbonate. Deed restrictions also played an important role in residential segregation. The documents stayed, but the capital would temporarily move from Austin to Houston to Washington-on-the-Brazos. After most housing deeds prohibited African Americans and sometimes other nonwhite groups from using land. The lakes also provide venues for boating, swimming, and other forms of recreation within several parks on the lake shores. The soils of Austin range from shallow, gravelly clay loams over limestone in the western outskirts to deep, fine sandy loams, silty clay loams, silty clays or clays in the city's eastern part. On August 1, , the first auction of out of lots total was held. Sam Houston fought bitterly against Lamar's decision to establish the capital in such a remote wilderness. But Lamar's political enemy, Sam Houston , used two Mexican army incursions to San Antonio as an excuse to move the government. The growth generated by this boom largely passed by Austin at first, with the city slipping from fourth largest to 10th largest in Texas between and After Vice President Mirabeau B. By , the population had risen to , of whom nearly half fled from Austin when Congress recessed. These projects were enabled in large part because the Public Works Administration provided Austin with greater funding for municipal construction projects than other Texas cities. A popular point of prominence in Austin is Mount Bonnell. The sport-climbing routes at Barton Creek Greenbelt—with its many vertical to overhanging walls—offer challenges to both the beginner and advanced climber. Over time, the long-running television program Austin City Limits, its namesake Austin City Limits Festival, and the South by Southwest music festival solidified the city's place in the music industry.
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