Based upon theoretical premise, the behavioral modeling and observational learning that takes place in Private and Formal venues may vary greatly from other venue types and contribute to women's perceptions of risk among partners met in these venues [ 7 ]. J Sex Transm Dis. How individuals, environments, and health behaviors interact: Similar trends existed for those who were unemployed and those with annual incomes below the poverty level. An ex-sexual partner is a person with whom the other partner does not intend to engage in any further sexual activity; while a prospective sexual partner is one with whom the person has not previously engaged in any sexual activity, but desires. Public and Private venues, as characterized in this study and other venue-based research [ 34 , 35 ], are most often associated with alcohol and substance use, which may both attract women already engaging in risk behaviors and facilitate engagement in risk behaviors [ 33 ].
Through our data collection, we assessed whether each participant had at least one main and at least one casual partner; however, we do not have this information at the partnership level and therefore cannot gain insight into partnership dynamics based on this criterion. Further understanding the motivations behind women's sexual partnerships, by venue type, would help clarify the relationship between outcomes expectancies and partnering in specific venue types. In addition to interactions between individuals and the venue environment influencing sexual partnerships, it is also possible that partnership patterns are influenced by similarities among those within shared networks i. It is plausible, nonetheless, that Private and Formal venues introduce HIV-vulnerable women to lower risk men than do Public or Virtual venues, a finding that could be helpful in community education for HIV risk reduction among lower income, African American women. We suggest that for women at increased risk of HIV, the association between HIV risk and venue may have less to do with where women choose to meet sex partners, and more to do with constraints placed on their access to venues based on limited socioeconomic status. Similarly, the findings from the multivariate model further demonstrated that, based upon partner characteristics, women meeting partners in Formal venues may have less risk of encountering partners with HIV and HIV risk than do those meeting partners in other venues. The need for concealment can stem from nondisclosure of male sex partners to female sex partners, social stigma towards same sex behaviors, and the common desire to maintain a masculine image [ 13 ]. In those cases, one party is typically called the perpetrator, and the person against whom the sex act is imposed is called a victim, or by similar terminology. How important are venue-based HIV risks among male clients of female sex workers? These findings also highlight the potential compounded effects due to the relationship between education and employment opportunities, as women with less education may also have less access to Formal venues, particularly work, which these findings indicate are a venue to meet lower risk sexual partners. These findings are consistent with other studies [ 33 ]. It remains unclear how motivations to attend a particular venue may influence the patterns of risk characteristics and risk behaviors observed among women in this sample. In addition, studies on women's perceptions of sexual norms for each venue type, as well as women's reasons for selecting venues to attend and for selecting sexual partners are needed and could also provide further context on HIV risk. In addition, most studies of venues where MSM go specifically to meet sexual partners have largely limited their focus to bathhouses [ 12 ], public restrooms [ 18 ], bars and clubs, cruising areas and public parks, and the Internet [ 13 , 19 , 20 ]. An assessment of sites where persons go to meet sexual partners in St. Limitations include the self-reported data of a sensitive nature that have inherent reporting biases, though previous studies indicate that ACASI supports more accurate reporting of sensitive behaviors than other types of data collection [ 40 , 41 ]. Further study is needed to determine how these perceptions may be related to the women's actual sexual risk behaviors with partners met in different venue types. Six theories of child development: However, further study to test how these theoretical concepts are operationalized in women meeting sex partners is warranted. The sexual partners can be of any number, sex , gender , or sexual orientation. The current study's findings provide additional insight into the relationship between education and HIV risk as lower educational attainment is related to where women met their sexual partners, with less educated women meeting more of their partners at the venues with the greatest report of partners with HIV risk characteristics. Health behavior and health education: Readings on the development of children. Acknowledgments The authors thank the study participants, community stakeholders, and staff from each study site. Risk environments and drug harms:
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